The principal social worker should also be visible across the organisation, from elected members and senior management, through to frontline social workers, people who use services and carers. Local authorities should therefore ensure that the role is located where it can have the most impact and profile. This can take several different forms, including direct casework, co-working, undertaking practice development sessions, mentoring. This represents a fundamental shift in social work practice in relation to safeguarding, with a focus on the person not the process.
Local authorities should, therefore, ensure that principal social workers lead on ensuring the quality and consistency of social work practice in fulfilling its safeguarding responsibilities. In particular they should have extensive knowledge of the legal and social work response options to specific cases and in general. To meet the challenges of the future, it will be vital that the care and support system intervenes early to support individuals, helps people retain or regain their skills and confidence, and prevents need or delays deterioration wherever possible.
This guidance sets out how local authorities should go about fulfilling their responsibilities, both individually and in partnership with other local organisations, communities, and people themselves.
In considering how to give effect to their responsibilities, local authorities should consider the range of options available, and how those different approaches could support the needs of their local communities. The use of such terms is aimed to illustrate what type of services, facilities and resources could be considered, arranged and provided as part of a prevention service, as well as to whom and when such services could be provided or arranged. However, services can cut across any or all of these 3 general approaches and as such the examples provided under each approach are not to be seen as limited to that particular approach.
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Prevention should be seen as an ongoing consideration and not a single activity or intervention. These are services, facilities or resources provided or arranged that may help an individual avoid developing needs for care and support, or help a carer avoid developing support needs by maintaining independence and good health and promoting wellbeing. They are generally universal for example, available to all services, which may include, but are not limited to interventions and advice that:.
The main aim is to bring those people that feel socially isolated and lonely into their local communities. In an evaluation of a new hub there was significant improvement on a friendship scale with scores moving from people feeling isolated or with a low level of social support at the beginning of the hub to very or highly socially connected at follow up. I look forward to Fridays each week and enjoy the social aspect of the club too. In order to identify those individuals most likely to benefit from such targeted services, local authorities may undertake screening or case-finding, for instance to identify individuals at risk of developing specific health conditions or experiencing certain events such as strokes, or falls , or those that have needs for care and support which are not currently met by the local authority.
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Targeted interventions should also include approaches to identifying carers, including those who are taking on new caring responsibilities. Carers can also benefit from support to help them develop the knowledge and skills to care effectively and look after their own health and wellbeing. Tertiary prevention could include, for example the rehabilitation of people who are severely sight impaired see also chapter 22 sight registers. This can help develop mechanisms to cope with stress associated with caring and help carers develop an awareness of their own physical and mental health needs.
Prevention services are, however, something that should always be considered. For example, at the end of life in relation to carers, prevention services could include the provision of pre-bereavement support. The National Audit of Intermediate Care categorises 4 types of intermediate care:. Rehabilitation services can include provisions that help people attain independence and remain or return to their home and participate in their community, for example independent living skills and mobility training for people with visual impairment. This could involve, for instance, reaching beyond traditional health or care interventions to help people develop or regain the skills of independent living and active involvement in their local community.
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These interventions may differ from those for people without caring responsibilities. Examples of services, facilities or resources that could contribute to preventing, delaying or reducing the needs of carers may include but is not limited to those which help carers to:. This is not creating or adding to their caring role but including them in an approach supporting the person to live as independently as possible for as long as possible. In regard to carers, the local authority should consider how they can be supported to look after their own health and wellbeing and to have a life of their own alongside their caring responsibilities.
For this group of people prevention needs to be considered through other means, such as the provision of community services and activities that would help support people to maintain an independent life.
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An older man lives alone with some support from his daughter who works full-time. He needs occasional personal care to remain living independently with dignity, and it is likely that these needs will increase. An assessment would consider all of his needs, including those currently being met by his daughter, along with the outcomes he wishes to achieve. Community groups, voluntary organisations, and buddying services could support the father to reduce the social isolation that he may be feeling and maximise opportunities to look after his own health and wellbeing and participate in local community activities.
This, in turn could lessen the impact of caring on his daughter and enable her to continue to support her father effectively alongside paid employment. In this example, the aspects of wellbeing relating to social wellbeing and family relationships might be promoted. Local authorities should actively promote participation in providing interventions that are co-produced with individuals, families, friends, carers and the community. Such interventions can contribute to developing individual resilience and help promote self-reliance and independence, as well as ensuring that services reflect what the people who use them want.
Derby City Council used co-production to develop clear and easy to use customer information to support their new customer journey for self-directed support. New information that has been produced includes an assessment form, support planning tools for people using services, customer leaflets and a staff handbook. A small project team held discussions and workshops to identify information that needed improving to be clearer and suggestions for improvement, for example, a new assessment form. Staff working in adult social care assessment teams had training on how to make best use of the new suite of information.
The inclusive approach taken to re-designing the information took longer than an internally managed process, but has resulted in better information, informed people using services and bringing their own perspective and experience. The co-production approach led to the development of key principles which can be used in other areas of communication.
The approach is being continued. This approach recognises the value in the resources of voluntary and community groups and the other resources of the local area. Local authorities should develop a clear, local approach to prevention which sets out how they plan to fulfill this responsibility, taking into account the different types and focus of preventative support as described above. Developing a local approach to preventative support is a responsibility wider than adult care and support alone, and should include the involvement, by way of example, of those responsible for public health, leisure, transport, and housing services which are relevant to the provision of care and support.
This could include connecting to other key areas of local preventative activity outside care, including housing, planning and public health. Understanding the breadth of available local resources will help the local authority to consider what gaps may remain, and what further steps it should itself take to promote the market or to put in place its own services. Local approaches to prevention should be built on the resources of the local community, including local support networks and facilities provided by other partners and voluntary organisations.
Considering the services, facilities and resources which contribute towards preventing or delaying the development of needs for care and support is a core element of fulfilling this responsibility.
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A local authority should engage local providers of care and support in all aspects of delivery and encourage providers to innovate and respond flexibly to develop interventions that contribute to preventing needs for care and support. In doing so, a local authority should draw on existing analyses such as the Joint Strategic Needs Assessment, and work with other local partners such as the NHS and voluntary sector to develop a broader, shared understanding of current and future needs, and support integrated approaches to prevention.
Understanding unmet need will be crucial to developing a longer-term approach to prevention that reflects the true needs of the local population.
This assessment should also be shared with local partners, such as through the health and wellbeing board, to contribute to wider intelligence for local strategies. Preventative services, facilities or resources are often most effective when brought about through partnerships between different parts of the local authority and between other agencies and the community such as those people who are likely to use and benefit from these services.
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At 82, Beryl was diagnosed with stomach cancer and admitted to hospital. As a result of a major operation, she now has a permanent colostomy bag. After only a month Beryl was successfully discharged from hospital to her own home with a reablement package from Leicester City Council and support from the housing association, Midland Heart, to help her regain her independence.
If Beryl had not received this support, she would have been discharged to a more costly care home. The support service has assisted her attendance at medical appointments with her GP and monitored the impact of her medication. Preventing needs will often be most effective when action is undertaken at a local level, with different organisations working together to understand how the actions of each may impact on the other. Across the local landscape, the role of other bodies including the local NHS for example: GPs, dentists, pharmacists, ophthalmologists , welfare and benefits advisers for example at Jobcentre Plus , the police, fire service, prisons in respect of those persons detained or released with care and support needs, service providers and others will also be important in developing a comprehensive approach.
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This responsibility includes in particular a focus on integrating with partners to prevent, reduce or delay needs for care and support. Helping people to access such types of support when they need it is likely to have a significant impact on their longer-term health and wellbeing, as well as potentially reducing or delaying the need for ongoing care and support from the local authority. There are a number of interactions and access points that could bring a person into contact with the local authority or a partner organisation and act as a trigger point for the local authority to consider whether the provision of a preventative service, or some other step is appropriate.
These might include, for example:. Local authorities and the voluntary sector should work together on how it can share this information to gain a fuller picture of local need as possible. Authorities should bring data from these different sources together to stratify who in the community may need care and support in the future and what types of needs they are likely to have, and use this information to target their preventative services effectively.
Approaches to identifying those people who may benefit from preventative support should consider how to locate people in such circumstances, for example:. In addition to any more targeted approaches to communicating with individuals who may benefit from preventative support, this service should include information and advice about preventative services, facilities or resources, so that anyone can find out about the types of support available locally that may meet their individual needs and circumstances, and how to access them.
A preventative approach requires a broad range of interventions, as one size will not fit all. However, where a local authority is not required to carry out such an assessment under the Care Act, it should nonetheless take steps to establish whether the person identified will benefit from the type of preventative support proposed.
The local authority is not required to provide a care and support plan or a support plan where it only takes steps under section 2 of the Care Act; however, it should consider which aspects of a plan should be provided in these circumstances, and should provide such information as is necessary to enable the person to understand:. Where the person refuses, but continues to appear to have needs for care and support or for support, in the case of a carer , then the local authority must proceed to offer the individual an assessment.
This is regardless of whether, in fact, the adult or carer is assessed as having any care and support needs or support needs. As part of the assessment process, the local authority considers the capacity of the person to manage their needs or achieve the outcomes which matter to them, and allows for access to preventative support before a decision is made on whether the person has eligible needs see chapter 6 on assessment.
This should not assume that others are willing or able to take up caring roles.
A young carer becomes vulnerable when their caring role risks impacting upon their emotional or physical wellbeing and their prospects in education and life. A local authority may become aware that a child is carrying out a caring role through an assessment or informed through family members or a school. A local authority should consider how supporting the adult with needs for care and support can prevent the young carer from under taking excessive or inappropriate care and support responsibilities.